On Endings…Novels, That Is (What makes a good one?)


shutterstock_90341185HAPPY NEW YEAR!

As we get ready to say goodbye to 2014, naturally, I’ve been thinking about endings. In this case, novel endings. The final stretch of a novel is probably the single most difficult part of a story to pull off, and it’s one of the areas where I see the most problems in my editing work. If you think about it, that makes a lot of sense: you’ve spent hundreds of pages building a complex fictional world and developing interesting, true-to-life characters to inhabit it. Readers have invested their time, emotions, and even a little cash, in your endeavor. After all that, there’s nothing more disappointing than a lackluster finish to the journey! So what is it that makes an ending satisfying—or not?

There are many elements to consider here, but here, I’ll focus on three that I think are among the most important:

Characters must remain true to themselves (and thus, reader expectations). In my view, this is the most vital ingredient of a satisfying ending. By the end of a full-length novel, readers have come to know your characters on the level of intimacy you find with a lover (remember that feeling of heartache when you read the final page of your favorite novel and had to say goodbye—now do I exaggerate? :) ) A great deal of reader disappointment results when the protagonist suddenly does something, well, out of character. This is a serious problem because, to the reader, it feels like a betrayal. It often happens because the author had a destination in mind that did not bend and develop during the course of the novel; the characters grew, but the idea for the ending did not. To avoid it, ask yourself: is this what my characters would do, or is it simply what I want them to do in keeping with the schnazzy ending I’ve been dying to put in a novel? Am I trying to stuff them into a shoe that doesn’t fit?

Don’t let it get messy. This is a problem I see most often in epic fantasies, but it can strike in any genre. It happens for a couple of reasons. One is that you have built a big, complex story with multiple plot threads and are now trying to tie all of them off. If you don’t find a way to bring them together neatly, using connections built throughout the story, you end up trying to put out a whole bunch of separate fires in the space of a few pages. And there just aren’t enough firemen for that—even in romance! Another reason it happens is that you may be trying to close the story before it is truly finished—you’re rushing. In both cases, the best advice is to take a deep breath and step back far enough to see the big picture. Is every one of the story threads indispensible? Or could one or two be trimmed to make for a tighter, more cohesive plot? Have you pursued each thread fully, so that they are ready to contribute to the ending?

It must steer clear of the generic or cliché. A third issue that often comes up is a lack of originality. Have you ever read a book that was strong through the beginning and middle, then suddenly lost steam and became a derivative of every famous novel in its genre? It’s understandable—I think this one comes as a result of writing fatigue, deadline pressure, or a combination of both. In the end, though, it’s vital to keep that creative energy flowing all the way to the end. Ask yourself: have I seen this ending before? If the answer is yes, your readers probably have, too.

May 2015 bring success and abundant blessings to your writing life…and heck, to life in general! Cheers!

Focus on Craft: How to Create Sympathetic Characters



Is it just me or is time accelerating? If you’re doing NaNoWriMo this year, congratulations! You’re just about to hit a milestone: the end of Week 1. Which means you’re feeling either euphoric, or scared out of your pants. Today I’m reaching into the archive for a topic that’s important at every stage of novel writing: creating characters your readers will want to spend 50,000+ words with. Whether you’re still in the early stages or polishing your ending, it’s worth stepping back to gauge whether your main characters are pulling their weight around here.


“I try to create sympathy for my characters, then turn the monsters loose.
” - Stephen King

How’s that for an awesome quote? I thought it would be perfect to kick off a new series where I take a quote or piece of advice from a famous author and talk about ways to apply it to your writing.

So let’s talk about sympathy.

Stephen King is hitting upon one of the most important skills you can have as a writer—the ability to create an emotional bond between your readers and your characters. Without that, it won’t make much difference what happens when the “monsters” come out. And by the way, this is vital not only in fiction, but memoir and other forms of creative nonfiction as well. Ever come across a first-person essay or memoir that made you say, “Give me a break! This guy/gal is way too arrogant”? You can substitute shallow, close-minded, or otherwise unlikeable. . . the point is, you probably dropped that book before the plot even took off.

So how do you go about making a character sympathetic? Here are a few examples:

Stir in some complexity. One of the biggest turn-offs in fiction is a flat character. In real life, people are multi-faceted. What makes people interesting is that we rarely can predict exactly how they’ll behave in a particular situation, and that’s because we all have so many layers to our personalities. The best writers know how to build that same complexity into their characters. On one hand, you want your readers to feel like they know your character intimately, like they can count on him in some way. But if he’s too one-dimensional, we’ll have the feeling that we can predict his every move, and that means you’ve taken that trust-building too far. Creating complexity is a big topic and I’ll go into it further in an upcoming post, but to start, try thinking about how you behave differently with some of the people you’re closest to in your life. Who are you with your spouse? With your parents? Your boss? There’s only one you, but you probably have a slightly different persona or demeanor with each of these people. How can you play that up in your writing? The more real your characters feel, the more likely your readers will care about them.

Give the character a (forgivable) flaw. You’ve probably heard this before: a character who is too perfect can be as problematic as one who is unredeemable. Why? Because it’s just not realistic. How boring would Indiana Jones have been without his exasperating stubbornness? And would women and girls the world over have fallen for Edward without the brooding (but not sullen) or self-sacrificing (but not masochistic) sides of his personality? A well-placed flaw makes a character easier to identify with (“That’s something I’d do—I’m pretty headstrong, too.”) And it can make us admire him even more if he’s able to overcome it. Just be careful not to overdo the flaw, or you could end up with the dreaded “unlikeable character.”

Put the character in a painful situation. You don’t literally have to turn monsters loose, à-la-Stephen King. In literary fiction, readers like to see how characters deal with the kind of thing that could happen (or perhaps is happening) in their lives: caring for an aging parent, surviving a divorce or infidelity from a partner, a betrayal of some kind from a son or daughter. In sci fi or fantasy, it could mean a choice between family and country/kingdom, or between honor and personal happiness. But regardless of the genre, the situation has to resonate with the reader—meaning on some level she has to recognize the character’s pain or believe she or someone she knows could experience it. You’re not likely to have to battle orcs or evil Druids to save your homeland, but you probably know someone who has served in the military and been sent overseas. Or maybe you’ve had to move away from your home and family—against your wishes—to take a job. A difficult situation makes our hearts go out to the character and creates underlying tension: will he make the noble choice we hope he will? Especially with that flaw we’ve started to notice?


Best wishes as you whip those protagonists into shape!

Are You Ready for NaNoWriMo? To Outline or Not


shutterstock_225367318Happy Halloween, Word Café readers!

With apologies for a necessary blogging hiatus, I’m back with a vengeance just in time for NaNoWriMo. I’m excited to kick off a series geared to that awesome event, but if this isn’t your year to participate, never fear. I aim to make the content useful for authors at whatever stage of the writing process you find yourself.

Today, I’ll focus on strategies for preparing to dive into that exhilarating first step of novel writing. Have you got your outline ready? Or are you dead-set against that kind of formal planning?  Regardless of which writing style you go with, some type of targeted brainstorming and planning is indispensable; it’s just a matter of which kind gets you stoked. Here is a list of helpful resources to give you a boost and help you decide which camp you fit into.

For those who like to outline (and helpful tips for those who don’t):

http://www.adventuresinyapublishing.com/2014/09/the-craft-of-outlining-by-kiki-sullivan.html An excellent guide to outlining by Kiki Sullivan, debut author of THE DOLLS, a thriller set in Louisiana. Kiki guides you through outlining an already published novel as a template for planning your own book.

http://www.creative-writing-now.com/novel-outline.html This guide to outlining includes sketching out of key scenes, with lists of questions to help you through the process and spark ideas.

http://www.writersdigest.com/online-editor/how-to-prepare-for-nanowrimo-to-outline-or-not-to-outline This article from Writers Digest presents informal outlining as a way to avoid dead ends and frustration—a good argument during time-crunched NaNoWriMo!

For those who prefer Seat of the Pants spontaneity—“pantsers” (and a jolt of creativity for those who don’t):

http://www.nybookeditors.com/2013/09/outlining/ This article from the New York Book Editors blog argues for the writing process as art, where the science of outlining may get in the way of unfettered inspiration. The take-away: just write!

http://www.writersdigest.com/online-editor/6-secrets-of-writing-a-novel-without-an-outline Bestselling author Steven James gives a helpful list for looking at the novel writing process with fresh eyes and plenty of flexibility.

http://annerallen.blogspot.com/2014/06/how-to-plan-novel-without-actually.html This is an article from author and former literary agent Nathan Bransford. It offers a bit of a compromise, with helpful prompts for planning the core of your story, whether you decide to make an outline or not.

Whether you’re an outliner or a pantser, wear your badge with pride as you charge into this amazing adventure! I look forward to sharing the NaNoWriMo journey with you here on Word Café.

Do you use a different method for preparing to write your novel? Please share any helpful strategies here!